Various research studies have indicated the psycho-social problems of the students, teachers, planners and managers working in the public and private sector of education in Pakistan. These problems can be studied under in three domains i.e. home-centered problems, community-centered problems and school-centered problems.
Although, the Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in his message delivered in the first Education Conference 1947, categorically stressed on taking practical steps in reshaping the whole education system of the country, yet the situation regarding the education sector of Pakistan has been very uncertain and critical till yet. The commissions and policies till the recent years have beautifully worked out various strategies and plans for enhancing and changing the curriculum, giving quality education, preparing standard textbooks, resolving the problem of medium of instruction, streamlining the planning and management of the institutions, but due to the policies and reforms without implementation, the mismatch in public and private systems, the teaching of languages only and the polarization and existence of pressure groups have weakened not only the whole education system of Pakistan but the other institutions and organizations also.
Moreover, it is a fact that the attitudes of teacher, the response of student and the behavior of manager do have a crucial role in making the personality of the individuals and social progress, but in addition to this some physical problems that still exist here are the overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teaching materials, poor staffing, absence of equipped libraries and laboratories, and lack of physical facilities like playgrounds, drinking water, washrooms, recreational, common, medical and retiring rooms and furniture etc. This alarming situation has caused an awkward backwardness of the education system in the country.
Furthermore, besides the system problems as observed, it is obvious that the teachers’ problems of insecurity, accommodation, remuneration, political exploitation life threats and deprivation prevent a teacher to play the role of an implementer, prompter, director, guide, counselor, manager, organizer and instructor inside the school and also halt him/her to work outside in the society as a good social.
Unfortunately, due to the lack of professional growth and leadership, teacher in Pakistan evidently faces a hurdle in the way toward lifelong and quality education. Most of the teachers are virtually literate and have regressive trends. However, the one room affair, the schools without boundary walls and the negligible participation of community also deteriorate the smooth process of education in Pakistan.
The broken homes, the social status of parents, poverty, orphanage, divorced families, crowded homes, sibling rivalry problem, family educational background, inferiority complexes, harsh discipline and child labour are also persistently showing their virulent fangs to tear down the learners in our country.
Teachers’ Status in the Educational institutions of Pakistan:
Teacher is considered the most central source in putting all the educational reforms into practice at all levels. In Pakistan teachers’ access to their democratic rights seems to be denied or not practiced properly according to the Policy Document of Pakistan which guarantees the realization of their democratic rights . The alarming aspects of their concerns are how to think up a plan of action that may facilitate them to have proper access to their democratic rights inside their institutions and in society as well.
Teaching is a very decent profession and a holy job. It uplifts and brings up the individuals as a responsible nation. The society has a lot of hopes from the teachers whom with the young generations have direct contact. Every nation desires excellent and fine production from schools and colleges. The learners imitate, identify and follow their teachers as model. The important part of our society is the educators who play revolutionary roles in the making of a nation. Their duty is plausible as they educate a child, the father of man, and a useful citizen of future.
Responsibilities and rights go together. Above and beyond performing a noble duty, the teachers have certain rights too. They have the right to live a respectably happy life in all aspects i.e. personal, social, cultural, religious, economic, and democratic aspirations, relations, affiliation and beliefs and practices in a proper manner. Teaching is a less attractive job in Pakistan, because the teachers face financial and economic hardships and they have to live within their limited resources. There is lack of the needed support from government and community is to facilitate them with respectable and happy life.
Due to the undemocratic administration here in Pakistan, a teacher faces problems of unreasonable and inappropriate work load. It halts to improve the quality of education and also makes the field unattractive to the new comers.
Educating children for quality and lifelong learning is very essential for the development of active citizenship, indispensable for their active part in a democratic society; and vital to promoting democratic culture. The role of teachers in promoting democracy learning through active and participatory approaches is essential. The Parliamentary Assembly and the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (1997) suggested inclusion of the courses of human rights in all school curricula. In its further recommendation (2002), it was stressed upon that the initial training of teachers in education for democratic citizenship is mandatory for which various steps like lifting up the level of professionalism of teachers and introducing new measures important today are to be taken.
The challenges like cultural deviation and nationalism, worldwide threats to security, expansion of new technologies of information and ecological harms do demand the new caliber from a teacher. In addition to them are the problems of the population movements, emergence of the once repressed people and the increasing demand for individual independence and new forms of equality. Further more, the weakening of social makeup and unity among people , doubts about conservative political institutions, types of governance and political leaders, increasing political, economic and cultural interconnectedness and interdependence are persistently intensifying the increasing pressure on educators and teachers to prepare and pace with the new century..
The curses of globalization, internet hazards, radioactivity of the nuclear developments, greed for power over the weaker nations, immoral and unethical attitudes of the world powers, the genetic decoding, the tussles of civilizations and cultures also require teachers to be well-equipped. The prevailing social and moral evils demand the new roles of teachers. So, for their innovative roles and effective performance, the realization and recognition of teachers’ democratic rights is very necessary. It is the need of the day to acknowledge and realize their democratic rights and assure their accessibility.
The rapidly changing world increases the need for an active, informed and responsible community which resultantly demands commonly accepted aim of education and role of teachers. In other words, the responsibility of teacher as a universal leader is greater. A teacher must be prepared for promoting forms of education and training at a time of increasing interconnectedness and interdependence at regional and international level.
Dürr and Martins (2000) suggest that the new form of education is to prepare the learners for actual involvement in society. To provide such teaching presents important challenges for the teaching profession. A teacher is meant to learn the new forms of knowledge, develop new teaching methods, find new ways of working and create new forms of professional relationships. Teaching should be enhanced with current affairs, critical thinking and skill teaching. .
Researches on the problem indicate clearly that problem in the realization of and access to the democratic rights of teachers in Pakistan still exists though the Constitution and Civil Laws of Pakistan contain their recognition and provision. In some cases the private educational managers in particular and public managers in general have been violating the democratic rights of teachers. Researches show that the situation in private and female teachers is alarmingly worse. It is because of the lack of their significant leading role and struggle for the realization of their rights.
The cause of this disparity is not only the community or government or educational managers but the teachers themselves so as they are not effectively performing their job and do not struggle for their rights. Consequently, this deprivation has disturbed the personality, competence and family and social life of teachers in Pakistan
Most of the teachers do have the caliber of management and leadership, like university teachers, but lack to actively participate in the struggles for the realization their democratic rights.